Problems in the remote monitoring of global variations in the Earth atmosphere gas components

1Morozhenko, OV, 1Sosonkin, MG, 1Shavrina, AV, 1Ivanov, Yu.S
1Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Kosm. nauka tehnol. 1995, 1 ;(2):03–17
Section: Study of the Earth from Space
Publication Language: Ukrainian
Observation data on the global variations in the planet's optical characteristics are reviewed. Climate variations and ecological conditions of the Earth's atmosphere are discussed. The spectrophotometric method for monitoring the chemical composition of the atmosphere is described in detail. Observations in the thermal spectral region are demonstrated to be more advantageous. A small-sized vibration-proof Fourier spectrometer for the region 3—10 jum with a spectral resolution of 2 cnf1 is described. It can be used in stationary and field conditions, and on board artificial Earth's satellites as well. The spectrophotometric method is shown to be promising in the global and local monitoring of gas pollutants in the Earth atmosphere. As an example we give lower boundary estimates for relative concentrations (with respect to C02) of ten atmospheric gas components.
Keywords: Earth atmosphere, gas pollutants, remote monitoring, spectrophotometry
1. Bell R.J. Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, 380 p. (Mir, Moscow, 1975) [in Russian].
2. Bugaenko L. A., Kislyuk L. M., Morozhenko A. V. Structure of the upper layers of the Jovian atmosphere. I. Correctness of interpretation of spectroscopic observations. In  Physics of planetary atmospheres, 27 - 44 (Nauk, dumka, Kiev, 1981) [in Russian].
3. Bugaenko O. I., Dlugach Zh. M., Morozhenko A. V., Yanovitskii É. G. Optical properties of Saturn's cloud layer in the visible spectral region.  Astron. vestn., 9 (1), 13—21 (1975) [in Russian].
4. Vidmachenko A. P., Steklov A. F., Minyajlo N. F. Seasonal activity on Jupiter? Pisma v Astron. Zhurn., 10 (9), 691—695 (1984) [in Russian].
5. Harris D. L. Photometry and Colorimetry of Planets and Satellites, In Planets and Satellites, Ed. by G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, P. 241—305 (Izd-vo inostr. lit., Moscow, 1975) [in Russian].
6. Gasilin N. K., Popov M. P., Shehovcov A. A. On the state of pollution in the USSR in 1989. Meteorology and Hydrology,  No.1, 113—117 (1991) [in Russian].
7. Goody R.M. Atmospheric Radiation, 522 p. (Mir, Moscow, 1966) [in Russian].
8. Dollfus O., Dlugach Zh. M., Morozhenko, A. V., Yanovitskii É. G. Optical Parameters of the Atmosphere and Surface of Mars. II. Dust Strom.  Astron. vestn., 8 (4), 211—219 (1974) [in Russian].
9. Ezhevskaya T. B., Shipilov A. F. Fourier spectrometer with a moveable splitter.  Instruments and Experimental Techniques, N 6, 166—169 (1981) [in Russian].
10. Kondrat'ev K. Ya., Buznikov A. A., Pokrovskij O. M. The "Sections" programs, 14. Global Ecology: remote sensing. Results of science and technology VINITI. The atmosphere, ocean, space, Vol.14, 308 p. (1992) [in Russian].
11. Matveev L. T. Course of general meteorology. Atmospheric Physics, 639 p. (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1976) [in Russian].
12. Morozhenko A. V. Optical parameters of the atmosphere and surface of Mars. I - Aerosol component of the clear atmosphere.  Astron. vestn., 8 (3), 121 — 127 (1974) [in Russian].
13. Morozhenko A. V. Short-term periodic variations in the polarization properties of Venus radiation.  Kinematics Phys. Celest. Bodies, 8 (4) 22—36 (1992) [in Russian].
14. Steklov A. F., Vidmachenko A. P., Miniailo N. F. Seasonal variations in the atmosphere of Saturn. Pisma v Astron. Zhurn., 9 (4), 250-253 (1983) [in Russian].
15. Chamberlain J.W. Theory of planetary atmospheres: an introduction to their physics and chemistry, 352 p. (Mir, Moscow, 1981) [in Russian].
16. Yanovitskij E.G. Light Scattering in Inhomogeneous Atmospheres, 399 p. (Kiev, 1995) [in Russian].
17. DelGenio A. Accuracy Requirements.  Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks: NASA Conf. Publ. 3234, P. 13—19 (New York, 1992).
18. Hansen J. E., Hovenier J. W. Interpretation of the Polarization of Venus. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 (4), 1137—1160 (1974).           
19. Hansen J. Climate Forsings and Feedbacks.  Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forsings and Feedbacks: NASA Conf. Publ.       3234, 6—12 (New York, 1992).
20. Hansen J. S., Lacis A., Ruede R., et al. How Sensitive Is the Word's Climate.  Res. and Exploration, 9 (2), 143—158 (1993).
21. Lacis A., Carlson B. Michelson Interferometer (MINT).  Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks: NASA Conf. Publ. 3234, 47—53 (New York, 1992).
22. Lorius C., Jouzel J., Raynaud D., et al. The ice-core record: Climate Sensivity and Future Greenhouse Warming.  Nature, 347 (1), 139—145 (1990).
23. McCornick M. P. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment.  Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks: NASA Conf. Publ. 3234, 36—39 (New York, 1992).
24. Morozhenko A.  V., Yanovitskiy E.  G.  The Optical Properties of Venus and the Jovian Planets. I. The Atmosphere of Jupiter According to Polarimetric Observations.  Icarus, 18 (3), 583—592 (1973).
25. Rothman L. S., Gamache R. R., Tippung R. H., et al. The HITRAN molecular Database: Editions of 1991 and 1992.  J. Quant. Spectrosc.   and   Radiat.   Transfer, 48 (5/6), 469—507 (1992).
26. Suess S.  T.,  Lockwood G. M.  Correlated Variation of Planetary Albedos and Coincident Solar-Interplanetary Variations.  Solar
Phys., 68 (2), 393—409 (1980).

27. Travis  L. Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks: NASA Conf. Publ. 3234, 40—46 (New York, 1992).