Olexander Zasyadko: the Lunar track of the Ukrainian cossack rockets. To the 240th anniversary of his birth

1Chayka, IF
1Lyutenka, Poltava region, Ukraine
Space Sci.&Technol. 2018, 24 ;(4):65-73
Publication Language: Ukrainian
The article contains a brief biography of Olexander Zasyadko (November 20, 1779, Lyutenka town of the Poltava region — June 8, 1837, Kharkiv), the outstanding designer of the combat missiles, the general of artillery, which can rightfully be considered the founder of Ukrainian modern rocket weapons. The main attention is paid to the history of his inventions of fire powder guns (incendiary and explosive) and the creation of launcher devices for these weapons.  
          Zasyadko's bravery was famed in legends. The officer (he started as а lieutenant) was awarded а golden sword for courage, the title of colonel, and а number of war decorations. Throughout this period of his life, he continued to dream of the military rocket's creation. Still serving in the artillery, he commenced designing rockets only in 1815, when the 1812—1815 war came to its end. Using his own money, he equipped а laboratory in his Lyutenka village, where he did all the major work on building the rockets, as well as а projector for them. “Zasyadko was а talented inventor. Не not only created а new rocket system and elaborated а theory of rocket propulsion, but he also matured tactics of military use of the weapons invented bу him. Не designed launching systems which allowed the execution of а volley fire bу six rockets simultaneously. Не dreamt of rocket flights to the Moon, and even made the necessary calculations of the required gunpowder, which was not (he understood it) the best fuel for this purpose” (Ventskovsky et al., 2013).
        Zasyadko's military rockets were successfully used for the siege of the Turkish fortresses during the Russian-Turkish war of 1828—1829. Zasyadko was personally in charge of all the siege artillery. When the war finished, he got the title of lieutenant-general, and retired from military service in 1834 and come back to Ukraine. Нis pioneering inventions stimulated further development of rocket building and afterwards played an important role in the creation of rockets.  
       We mention papers and books, both scientific and advertising, which are devoted to his life and activities, as well as we announce possible events devoted to the celebration of the 240th anniversary of the birth of O. D. Zasyadko, in particular, holding an international conference at his native land in Poltava. The crater on the far side of the Moon (crater Zasyadko) is named in his honor.
Keywords: combat missils, launcher device, military rocket, space research history
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