Cleanliness control of launching spacecrafts: development of cleanliness requirements and inspection techniques

1Potapovych, LP, 1Tikhii, VG, 1Potapov, AM, 2Semenov, LP, 2Zasuha, SA
1Yangel Yuzhnoye State Design Office, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
2State Space Agency of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Kosm. nauka tehnol. 2007, 13 ;(6):046-056
https://doi.org/10.15407/knit2007.06.046
Publication Language: Russian
Abstract: 
The potential negative effects of contamination on the operation of spacecraft systems and instruments were analysed. We developed cleanliness requirements for aerospace equipment at various stages of its manufacturing and operation according to its function and design features. The developed inspection techniques of all the critical cleanliness parameters are described and some inspection results are given.
Keywords: cleanliness parameters, inspection techniques, launching spacecrafts
References: 
1. Nonmetallic materials. Test method for mass loss and content of volatile condensable materials in a vacuum-thermal environment: GOST R 50109-92 from 1st July 1993 [in Russian].
2. Pollution of the surfaces of spacecraft in the process of operation (review on the materials of domestic and foreign press [Zagrjaznenie poverhnostej kosmicheskih apparatov v processe jekspluatacii (obzor po materialam otechestvennoj i zarubezhnoj pechati)], 220 p. (ONTI CNII-Mash, Moscow, 1975) [in Russian].
3. Klimuk P. I., Zabelina I. A., Gogolev V. A. Visual Observations and Dirtying of Optics in Outer Space, 220 p. (Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, 1983) [in Russian].
4. Vernov S. N. (Ed.) A Model of Outer Space (Cosmos Model-82), Vol. 3: Calculation model, 636 p. (Mosk. Gos. Univ., Moscow, 1983) [in Russian].
5. ASTM E595-93. Standard Test Method for Total Mass Loss and Collected Volatile Condensable Materials for Outgass-ing in a Vacuum Environment, American Society for Testing and Materials. USA.
6. ECSS-Q-70-01 A-2002. Space product assurance. Cleanliness and contamination control, December, 11, 2002. European Cooperation for Space Standardization, Requirements 8, Standards Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
7. ECSS-Q-70-02A. Space product assurance. Thermal vacuum outgassing test for the screening of space materials, May, 26, 2000. European Cooperation for Space Standardization, Requirements 8, Standards Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
8. FED-STD-209E Airborne Particulate Cleanliness Classes in Cleanrooms and Clean Zones. (USA, September, 11, 1992).
9. ISO 14644-1:1999 Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments - Part 1: Classification of airborne particulates. (International Organization for Standardization, , May, 1, 1999).

10. MIL-STD-1246C Product Cleanliness Levels and Contamination Control Program. (USA, April, 11, 1994).