On the construction of an adaptable system of mutual measurements for autonomous rendezvous of spacecrafts with non-cooperative space objects

1Vasylyev, VV, 2Godunok, LA, 3Volkov, VA, 4Melnychuk, SV, 2Derkach, SV, 3Somov, AV
1Private Joint Stock Company ELMІZ, Kyiv, Ukraine
2Private Joint Stock Company “Research and Production Complex “Kurs”, Kyiv, Ukraine
3Institute of Radio Astronomy, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
4Space Research Institute of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine and the National Space Agency of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Space Sci. & Technol. 2020, 26 ;(3):42-54
https://doi.org/10.15407/knit2020.03.042
Publication Language: Russian
Abstract: 
The article discusses approaches to the design of a system of mutual measurements of motion parameters for rendezvous of spacecrafts of different classes and purposes with non-cooperative space objects, as well as for further operations in orbit. The effective structure and the composition of sensors are described.
                The presented analysis of systems of this type passed the environmental tests in space, has shown the advantages and disadvantages of optical and radio-technical proximity sensors included in the spacecraft motion control loop. The analysis allowed us to formulate performance requirements for the equipment of a mutual measurement system to ensure the service spacecraft control during its approaching a non-cooperative space object. The composition of the proposed system is given, and its operating modes during spacecrafts’ approaching are described.
              The options of the radar system for geostationary and low-earth orbit are examined. Methods of measurements of mutual rendezvous parameters and positions of spacecrafts using the radar system are defined. The main specifications for the receiving transmitting unit of an active phased antenna array are described. This antenna is an element of the antenna device of the radar system. The method for definition of angular parameters of spacecrafts’ mutual positions using the machine vision system is described together with the peculiarities of its construction and the characteristics of required video cameras. The article also provides the design of a machine vision system for spacecraft control at the final stage of rendezvous, technical specifications of machine vision system devices, the principle of performance, and the way to improve the accuracy of laser rangefinder measurements.
Keywords: mutual measurement system, non-cooperative space object, on-orbit servicing, radar system, spacecraft
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