Passage of the acoustic waves caused by seismic and volcano activity through the lithosphere into the ionosphere
|1Grimalsky, VV, 2Koshevaya, SV, 3Kotsarenko, AN, 4Malnev, V, 2Juarez, D |
1National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, Mexico
2Faculty of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Morelo (UAEM), Mexico
3Center for Earth Sciences (UNAM), Mexico
4Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
|Kosm. nauka tehnol. 2005, 11 ;(5-6):035-041|
|Publication Language: English|
During earthquakes and strong underground explosions the nonlinear passage of the acoustic waves takes place through the lithosphere into the ionosphere, which is analyzed in this paper. This nonlinear passage occurs due to nonlinear elastic modules of the lithosphere and hydrodynamic nonlinearity of the atmosphere. The waves are excited by underground sources under earthquakes. The acoustic wave propagation going almost vertically upwards causes a change of their spectrum. A wide spectrum of the acoustic waves till the radio wave range, caused by fracturing of the rock in the surface, was observed by means of satellite measurements and radio telescope investigation of meteor bombing of the Moon. If the fracture occurs at deep depths, high frequencies due to nonlinear interaction transform into very low and extremely low frequency waves. Very low and extremely low elastic displacement waves achieve the Earth's surface and excite the response in seismograms. Acoustic waves move through the atmosphere into the ionosphere, and this causes changing their spectrum. More than 100 higher harmonics are excited. Excitation and passage of acoustic waves produce ELF and ULF waves in the atmosphere, as a result of the nonlinear transform and diffraction of waves.
1. Galperin Yu. In: Phys. Solid Earth, No. 11, 88— 95 (1985).
2. Warwick J. W. Radio astronomical and satellite studies of the atmosphere, Ed. by J. Aarons, 400 p. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1963).
3. Gokhberg M., Morgounov V., Pokhotelov O. Earthquake Prediction: Seismo-Electromagnetic Phenomena, 280 p. (Gordon and Breach, London, 1995).
4. Molchanov O. A. In: Geomagn. And Aeronomy, 31 (1), 111 — 120 (1991).
5. Molchanov O. A., Hayakawa M., Rafalsky V. A. Penetration characteristics of electromagnetic emissions from an underground seismic source into the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 100A (2), 1691 — 1703 (1995).
6. Tarantsev A., Birfeld Ya. The brief descriptions of discoveries. CNIIPII (USSR, Moscow), Discovery No 128.
7. Kotsarenko N. Ya., Perez Enriquez R., Koshevaya S. V. Excitation of plasma waves in the ionosphere caused by atmospheric acoustic waves. Astrophys. and Space Phys., 246 (2), 211—217 (1997).
8. Surkov V. V., Molchanov O. A., Hayakawa M. Pre-earthquake ULF electromagnetic perturbations as a result of inductive seismomagnetic phenomena during microfracturing. J. Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Phys., 65 (1), 31—46 (2003).
9. Makarets M. V., Koshevaya S. V., Gernets A. A. Electromagnetic emission caused by the fracturing of piezoelectrics in rocks. Phys. Scripta, 65 (3), 268—272 (2002).
10. Khavroshkin O. B., Tsyplakov V. V., Berezhnoi A. A., et al. In: Doklady Earth Sci., 376 (1), 90—92 (2001).
11. Musatenko S. I., Kurochka E. V., Aslanyan A. M., et al. In: Kinematika i Fizika Nebesnykh Tel, 13, 64—68 (1997).
12. Berezhnoy A. A., Bervalds E., Khavroshkin O. B., et. al. Radio observations of the Moon during activity periods of the Leonid and Lyrid meteor streams. Baltic Astronomy, 11, 507—527 (2002).
13. Rudenko O. Nonlinear sawtooth-shaped waves. Phys. Uspekhi, 38 (9), 965—968 (1995).