Passage of the acoustic waves caused by seismic and volcano activity through the lithosphere into the ionosphere

1Grimalsky, VV, 2Koshevaya, SV, 3Kotsarenko, AN, 4Malnev, V, 2Juarez, D
1National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, Mexico
2Faculty of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Morelo (UAEM), Mexico
3Center for Earth Sciences (UNAM), Mexico
4Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
Kosm. nauka tehnol. 2005, 11 ;(5-6):035-041
Publication Language: English
During earthquakes and strong underground explosions the nonlinear passage of the acoustic waves takes place through the lithosphere into the ionosphere, which is analyzed in this paper. This nonlinear passage occurs due to nonlinear elastic modules of the lithosphere and hydrodynamic nonlinearity of the atmosphere. The waves are excited by underground sources under earthquakes. The acoustic wave propagation going almost vertically upwards causes a change of their spectrum. A wide spectrum of the acoustic waves till the radio wave range, caused by fracturing of the rock in the surface, was observed by means of satellite measurements and radio telescope investigation of meteor bombing of the Moon. If the fracture occurs at deep depths, high frequencies due to nonlinear interaction transform into very low and extremely low frequency waves. Very low and extremely low elastic displacement waves achieve the Earth's surface and excite the response in seismograms. Acoustic waves move through the atmosphere into the ionosphere, and this causes changing their spectrum. More than 100 higher harmonics are excited. Excitation and passage of acoustic waves produce ELF and ULF waves in the atmosphere, as a result of the nonlinear transform and diffraction of waves.
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