Astronomical observations and monitoring surveys of the Earth from the surface or from the Moon’s orbit and their ground support

1Vidmachenko, AP, 2Kazantseva, LV, 1Morozhenko, OV, 3Choliy, VYa., 1Nevodovsky, PV
1Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
2Astronomical Observatory of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
3Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Space Sci. & Technol. 2019, 25 ;(5):25-75
https://doi.org/10.15407/knit2019.05.025
Publication Language: Ukranian
Abstract: 
The current progress of the space industry in the advanced countries of the world came close to the creation of a permanent base on the Moon. Such an expensive project should provide for maximum economic returns and the use of useful scientific workload for a wide range of research in various fields of science.
      The scientific lunar programs should include issues that cannot be solved by ground methods. In this article, we
present a historical background of the study of the Moon, a short chronology of such studies and a list of tasks that can be solved from the lunar base. Among them, the features of the mineralogical mapping of the surface layer, the possibility of using the lunar base for astronomical observations, projects of the location of observatories on the lunar surface, objects for observations from the lunar surface, and suggested methods
for such studies were considered. Some of these studies can be performed using the special equipment installed at the industrial research base proposed by State Design Bureau «Yuzhnoye » for deployment on the Moon. One of the tasks is to study the libration of the Moon from observations of diurnal and annual tracks of stars by comparing them with theoretical models of the internal structure of the satellite.
     It is also proposed to use the lunar base for photometric, spectral and spectropolarimetric studies of the Earth.
Keywords: astronomical observations, history of astronomy and astronautics, monthly basis, Moon, observation from the lunar surface, physical libration of the Moon, selenology
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