Generation mechanism and features of propagation of the ULF planetary-scale electromagnetic wavy structures in the ionosphere

1Aburjania, GD, 2Lominadze, JG, 1Khantadze, AG, 1Kharshiladze, OA
1Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
2Georgian Space Agency, Tbilisi, Georgia
Kosm. nauka tehnol. 2004, 10 ;(5-6):062-081
Publication Language: English
We give some results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of generation and propagation of planetary (with the wavelengths of 1000 km and more) ultra-low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic wave structures in the dissipative ionosphere. It is established that inhomogeneity (latitude variation) of the geomagnetic field and the Earth's rotation generates fast and slow planetary ULF electromagnetic waves. The waves propagate along the parallels to the east as well as to the west. In E-region the fast waves have phase velocities from 2 to 20 km/s and frequencies from 0.1 to 100 mHz; the slow waves propagate with local winds velocities and have frequencies 1 – 100,«Hz. In F-region the fast ULF electromagnetic waves propagate with phase velocities from several ten to several hundred kilometres per second and their frequencies are in the range of 10 to 0.001 Hz. The slow mode is produced by the dynamo electric field, it represents the generalization of the ordinary Rossby type waves in the rotating ionosphere and is caused by the Hall effect in the E-layer. The fast disturbances are new modes, which are associated with oscillations of the ionospheric electrons frozen in the geomagnetic field and are connected with the large-scale internal vortical electric field generation in the ionosphere. The large-scale waves are weakly damped. The features and the parameters of the theoretically investigated electromagnetic wave structures agree with those of large-scale ULF midlatitude long-period oscillations and magnetoionospheric wave perturbations, observed experimentally in the ionosphere. It is established that because of relevance of the Coriolis and electromagnetic forces, generation of slow planetary electromagnetic waves at the fixed latitude in the ionosphere can give rise to the reverse of local wind structures and to the direction change of general ionospheric circulation. It is considered one more class of the waves, called as slow magnetohydrodynamic waves, on which inhomogeneity of the Coriolis and Ampere forces do not influence. These waves appear as an admixture of the slow Alfven and whistler type perturbations. The waves generate the geomagnetic field from several ten to several hundred nanotesla and more. Nonlinear interaction of the waves under consideration with the local ionospheric zonal shear winds is studied. It is established that planetary ULF electromagnetic waves, at their interaction with the local shear winds, can self-localize in the form of nonlinear solitary vortices moving along the latitude circles westward as well as eastward 
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